Why do women have longer lives than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men and how is this difference growing in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables that all play a role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men and not previously, has to have to do with the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for تزويد متابعين تويتر survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can expect to live longer than her brother.

It is interesting to note that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.



The advantage for women in life expectancy was smaller in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.

We will now examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed with time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there’s an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was extremely small but it has risen significantly over time.

You can check if these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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